Biotic and abiotic interactions pdf

Biotic and abiotic interactions pdf

How do organisms interact with the living and non-living elements of their environment? Note to teachers: The answers in the "fact first question sheet" provide insight into students' ideas.

It helps to draw out student knowledge beyond the recall level as it elicits an answer that requires elaboration. I have paired the question with a Think-Pair-Write, in order to allow students to have an opportunity to share their thinking with a partner, while still holding the accountable for the conversation SP8. I continue the lesson by telling the students that today we will be talking about the living and non-living things present in an environment, and start this slideshow.

The second slide includes definitions for biotic and abiotic factors. When I present slides 3 and 4, I use popsicle sticks to select about five students to name the biotic and abiotic factors in each slide.

Biotic and Abiotic Factors

This exercise is aimed at making sure the students understand the difference between both concepts before going outside for the activity that follows. I have students create a simple T-chart on a piece of binder paper with the headings " Biotic " and " Abiotic ". I then explain that we will go outside for 10 minutes. Their job is to recognize and record as many biotic and abiotic factors as they can. These have to be present in this school-yard environment. As an added bonus, I tell them that the student with the most items identified correctly AND who is back in their seat 20 seconds after I blow my whistle, will win 5 patriot bucks school-wide incentive.

Once we are clear on the directions and expectations, we head outside on our hunt.

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During this time, the students are able to move about freely and are gaining experience classifying information. After 10 minutes of outside time, I gather the students back in the classroom, and ask for a couple of volunteers to share the most surprising biotic or abiotic factor they found. I don't have students share their complete lists because they become very repetitive, however I do have students turn in their lists and go over them afterwards to make sure that the different items were classified correctly.

Once the students are back inside, I continue with the presentation at slide 7and have a whole class discussion centering on the questions being shown:.

I display slide 8, which tells the students that they will receive a pictureand their job is to work with their table groups to identify at least 3 biotic and 3 abiotic factors in their picture, and to explain how they interact with one another SP7, SP8.

In order to hold students accountable for the conversation, I distribute the Biotic and Abiotic Factors note-catcher. Listen in on their discussion and how by simply asking "why" or "what else" provides opportunities for more in-depth reasoning.

To close this lesson, I prepared a set of Quizlet flashcardsand we spend the last few minutes playing "Biotic or Abiotic". Empty Layer. Home Professional Learning. Professional Learning. Learn more about. Sign Up Log In. Biotic and Abiotic Factors Add to Favorites teachers like this lesson. Students will be able to describe biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem.

Big Idea Ecosystems have a natural balance of abiotic and biotic factors.

Biotic Abiotic Interactions

Within a natural system, the transfer of energy drives the cycling of matter. Lesson Author. Grade Level. MS-LS Develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem.The organisms, each termed a symbiontmay be of the same or of different species. InHeinrich Anton de Bary defined it as "the living together of unlike organisms". The term was subject to a century-long debate about whether it should specifically denote mutualism, as in lichens ; biologists have now abandoned that restriction.

Symbiosis can be obligatory, which means that one or both of the symbionts entirely depend on each other for survival, or facultative optional when they can generally live independently.

Symbiosis is also classified by physical attachment; symbiosis in which the organisms have bodily union is called conjunctive symbiosis, and symbiosis in which they are not in union is called disjunctive symbiosis. The definition of symbiosis was a matter of debate for years. InEdward Haskell proposed an integrative approach with a classification of "co-actions", [13] later adopted by biologists as "interactions".

Relationships can be obligate, meaning that one or both of the symbionts entirely depend on each other for survival. For example, in lichenswhich consist of fungal and photosynthetic symbionts, the fungal partners cannot live on their own. Endosymbiosis is any symbiotic relationship in which one symbiont lives within the tissues of the other, either within the cells or extracellularly.

Ectosymbiosis is any symbiotic relationship in which the symbiont lives on the body surface of the hostincluding the inner surface of the digestive tract or the ducts of exocrine glands.

Competition can be defined as an interaction between organisms or species, in which the fitness of one is lowered by the presence of another. Limited supply of at least one resource such as foodwaterand territory used by both usually facilitates this type of interaction, although the competition may also exist over other 'amenities', such as females for reproduction in case of male organisms of the same species. Mutualism or interspecies reciprocal altruism is a long-term relationship between individuals of different species where both individuals benefit.

A large percentage of herbivores have mutualistic gut flora to help them digest plant matter, which is more difficult to digest than animal prey. An example of mutualism is the relationship between the ocellaris clownfish that dwell among the tentacles of Ritteri sea anemones.

The territorial fish protects the anemone from anemone- eating fish, and in turn the stinging tentacles of the anemone protect the clownfish from its predators.

biotic and abiotic interactions pdf

A special mucus on the clownfish protects it from the stinging tentacles. A further example is the gobya fish which sometimes lives together with a shrimp. The shrimp digs and cleans up a burrow in the sand in which both the shrimp and the goby fish live. The shrimp is almost blind, leaving it vulnerable to predators when outside its burrow.

In case of danger, the goby touches the shrimp with its tail to warn it. When that happens both the shrimp and goby quickly retreat into the burrow. A non-obligate symbiosis is seen in encrusting bryozoans and hermit crabs.

The bryozoan colony Acanthodesia commensale develops a cirumrotatory growth and offers the crab Pseudopagurus granulimanus a helicospiral-tubular extension of its living chamber that initially was situated within a gastropod shell. Many types of tropical and sub-tropical ants have evolved very complex relationships with certain tree species. In endosymbiosis, the host cell lacks some of the nutrients which the endosymbiont provides. As a result, the host favors endosymbiont's growth processes within itself by producing some specialized cells.

These cells affect the genetic composition of the host in order to regulate the increasing population of the endosymbionts and ensure that these genetic changes are passed onto the offspring via vertical transmission heredity. A spectacular example of obligate mutualism is the relationship between the siboglinid tube worms and symbiotic bacteria that live at hydrothermal vents and cold seeps.

The worm has no digestive tract and is wholly reliant on its internal symbionts for nutrition. The bacteria oxidize either hydrogen sulfide or methane, which the host supplies to them.

These worms were discovered in the late s at the hydrothermal vents near the Galapagos Islands and have since been found at deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps in all of the world's oceans. As the endosymbiont adapts to the host's lifestyle, the endosymbiont changes dramatically.

The decrease in genome size is due to loss of protein coding genes and not due to lessening of inter-genic regions or open reading frame ORF size. Species that are naturally evolving and contain reduced sizes of genes can be accounted for an increased number of noticeable differences between them, thereby leading to changes in their evolutionary rates.

When endosymbiotic bacteria related with insects are passed on to the offspring strictly via vertical genetic transmission, intracellular bacteria go across many hurdles during the process, resulting in the decrease in effective population sizes, as compared to the free-living bacteria.

The incapability of the endosymbiotic bacteria to reinstate their wild type phenotype via a recombination process is called Muller's ratchet phenomenon. Muller's ratchet phenomenon, together with less effective population sizes, leads to an accretion of deleterious mutations in the non-essential genes of the intracellular bacteria.Thank you for visiting nature.

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A Nature Research Journal. Abiotic and biotic factors control ecosystem biodiversity, but their relative contributions remain unclear. The ultraoligotrophic ecosystem of the Antarctic Dry Valleys, a simple yet highly heterogeneous ecosystem, is a natural laboratory well-suited for resolving the abiotic and biotic controls of community structure. We undertook a multidisciplinary investigation to capture ecologically relevant biotic and abiotic attributes of more than sites in the Dry Valleys, encompassing observed landscape heterogeneities across more than km 2.

Using richness of autotrophic and heterotrophic taxa as a proxy for functional complexity, we linked measured variables in a parsimonious yet comprehensive structural equation model that explained significant variations in biological complexity and identified landscape-scale and fine-scale abiotic factors as the primary drivers of diversity.

However, the inclusion of linkages among functional groups was essential for constructing the best-fitting model. Our findings support the notion that biotic interactions make crucial contributions even in an extremely simple ecosystem.

Understanding how ecosystems self-organize at landscape scales has long been a formidable challenge in ecology 12 since the trophic complexity of most ecosystems obscures the relative contributions of the biotic and abiotic factors regulating biological diversity 3456. Given the fundamental effects of biodiversity on ecosystem function 7a critical task is to resolve the relative importance of three sets of ecological factors that drive community structure: abiotic environmental filtering, dispersal limitation in space, and biotic interactions e.

Thorough and spatially explicit descriptions of these ecosystem drivers are required for this task, but the complexity of most ecosystems creates enormous logistical obstacles. Biotic interactions, including those among higher eukaryotes and those between higher eukaryotes and microorganisms, have long been recognized as important drivers of ecosystem structure and function 69.

A comprehensive investigation of abiotic and biotic interactions within an ecosystem therefore requires a sampling design that is consistent across all major biological groups present. It also requires an explicitly interdisciplinary and comprehensive approach for data collection and analysis of both abiotic and biotic variables. For microorganisms bacteria, archaea, and unicellular fungiculture-independent characterization using molecular genetic techniques is widely recognized as the most consistent and sensitive approach 16whereas conventional surveys remain the most reliable and practical approach for larger invertebrates and higher animals and plants in terrestrial environments.

For abiotic variables and some major macroecological features e. The integration of GIS and remote sensing technologies e. Specifically, the availability of high-resolution data layers from sources such as the Landsat 7 and MODIS satellites facilitates complete and consistent descriptions of environmental conditions e.

Using these descriptions in conjunction with information on bedrock geology and geomorphology, it is now feasible to carry out systematic landscape-scale surveys that capture heterogeneities in abiotic conditions within an ecosystem. Additionally, all information collected within a GIS-enabled sampling framework is spatially explicit and enables thorough examinations of dispersal limitation effects across multiple spatial scales. Despite the advances in methodologies, disentangling the relative roles of abiotic and biotic controls on the complexity in terrestrial ecosystems is still a major challenge in ecology.

We propose that extreme ecosystems offer a natural laboratory to reduce this complexity while representing its major features Here, we offer an analysis of the controls on the biological complexity of a region of the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Vascular plants and vertebrates are entirely absent, and soils are predominantly ultraoligotrophic, hyperarid, and often hypersaline 21 Consequently, abiotic factors are widely regarded as the primary force shaping the ecology of Dry Valley soils 2021242526 These unique characteristics make the Dry Valleys a model system for resolving the roles of abiotic and biotic factors that shape community structure.

This project draws on a wide range of international expertise to profile the biology, geochemistry, geology, and climate of the Dry Valleys, and has completed a spatially and biologically comprehensive landscape-scale survey that aims to resolve the biotic and abiotic control of ecosystem complexity.

We then used structural equation modelling SEM to analyze the comprehensive collection of geological, geographical, geochemical, hydrological, and biological variables measured systematically across three Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Structural equation modelling SEMwhich is built on path analysis and factor analysis, is one of the most useful statistical approaches to disentangle numerous factors of influence 30 and develop deeper causal understanding from observational data Users of SEM translate theoretical frameworks informed by knowledge of the ecosystem into explicit multivariate hypotheses, and the SEM is used to evaluate whether the theory is consistent with empirical data 30These changes threaten our food supply, necessitating both understanding and informed action on our side.

Conditions such as heat or cold waves, drought, or flooding directly impact the growth of crops, as well as alter their interactions with pathogens.

biotic and abiotic interactions pdf

In addition, some of these changes can occur simultaneously, resulting in devastating impacts to our economy. How we prepare for such changes and attempt to mitigate their impact directly depends on our understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying the interaction of plants with different biotic and abiotic stresses, as well as their combination.

For instance, identifying and manipulating a transcription factor TF or another regulatory protein that functions early in a defense or acclimation response regulon will often make plants much more tolerant to stress than manipulating one enzyme or one protein that is part of that regulon e.

Clearly, this strategy requires basic research to identify these key regulators and their corresponding function s within their regulatory nodes. As we look to the future, however, an important concern is that we do not fully understand how individual regulatory nodes may interact with each other to cause beneficial or undesirable outcomes under more complex combinatorial conditions or stresses.

To manipulate pathways and networks and to achieve the best outcome swe therefore need to understand how each pathway and network function and how they interact with each other. Within plants, numerous signal transduction pathways and networks interact in response to a given biotic or abiotic stimulus. These responses are intertwined with interactions of numerous plant hormones, calcium, and different reactive oxygen species ROSas well as a plethora of receptors, kinases, phosphatases, and other regulatory proteins, compounds, and small molecules e.

Sierla et al.

Biotic And Abiotic

Each signaling mechanism or network could be influenced by different biotic or abiotic conditions that will alter its overall outcome and affect acclimation to different conditions. However, at present, we understand relatively little about how one pathway impinges on the activity of another.

The current special issue summarizes some of the main concepts discussed.

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Topics covered in this special issue include signaling during abiotic and biotic stresses as it links to development, nutrient availability, and interactions with soil bacteria Hoang et al. Also discussed are the interactions of stress-related signaling pathways with the perception of light quality Liscum et al. Two additional growing fields in plant stress biology covered are the role of the endoplasmic reticulum ER and autophagy in stress signaling Afrin et al. Finally, the relationship s between receptor-like kinase signaling and heterotrimeric G-proteins in stress signaling is addressed Pandey, Although these reviews cover only a small fraction of the plant abiotic and biotic signaling field, they address many of the central concepts that relate to balancing and integrating different pathways during stress signaling Box 1.

A The multiple factors proposed to affect almost all signal transduction pathways in plants. The outcome of almost any signaling pathway needs to integrate many, if not all, of these factors to generate a context-relevant response that will contribute to the successful survival, growth, and reproduction of the plant.

B Interaction between different signaling complexes integrating input from multiple factors e.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Stress ecology in fucus: abiotic, biotic and genetic interactions Advances in marine biology, Veijo Jormalainen.

Stress ecology in fucus: abiotic, biotic and genetic interactions. Olsenz Contents 1. Introduction 39 1. Methods 42 2. The Genus Fucus 57 3. The Stressful Environment 64 4.

Genetic Levels of Stress Response 81 5. Conclusions 86 7. Prospects 87 7. The natural patterns of stress to which species are more or less well adapted have recently started to shift and alter under the influence of global change. This was the motivation to review our knowledge on the stress ecology of a benthic key player, the macroalgal genus Fucus. We first provide a comprehensive review of the genus as an ecological model includ- ing what is currently known about the major lineages of Fucus species with respect to hybridization, ecotypic differentiation and speciation; as well as life history, population structure and geographic distribution.

It is concluded that i interactive stress effects appear to be equally distributed over additive, antagonistic and synergistic categories at the level of single experiments, but are predominantly additive when averaged over all studies in a meta-analysis of 41 experiments; ii juvenile and adult responses to stress frequently differ and iii several species or particular populations of Fucus may be relatively unaffected by climate change as a consequence of pre-adapted ecotypes that collectively express wide phys- iological tolerences.

Many shallow coastal habitats, however, are defined by a physically demanding environment with steep abiotic gradients and drastic environ- mental fluctuations at small spatial and temporal scales.

Biotic and Abiotic Factors

Marine organisms living in these intertidal or shallow subtidal habitats are regularly exposed to strong water motion and subjected to extreme fluctuations in temper- ature, pH, irradiance, salinity or nutrient availability, and the amplitude of these fluctuations far exceeds climate changes predicted for the coming decades e.

Thomsen and Melzner, Although organisms in these habitats cope with ambient abiotic stresses at least to the point of transient tolerance, they must also contend with stressful biotic interactions including competition, epibiosis, parasitism and herbivory, all of which have the potential to modulate the abiotic stresses e.

Wahl, b.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Abiotic and Biotic Abhishek Makwana. Abiotic and Biotic. Background Information 3. Materials 4. Procedure 5. Data Collection 6. Data Processing 7. Data Representation 8.

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Discussion 9. Evaluation Conclusion Background information: This experiment was conducted in Ahmedabad, which is a deciduous forest. There are two types of deciduous forest one tropical and temperate forests. Deciduous means some of the species of the trees will shed during the winter. However the average temperature of deciduous forests ranges from An ecosystem is a community of all living organisms which are interdependent on the physical environment they live in.

The ecosystem consists of two components the biotic components and the abiotic components. The biotic components maybe defined as the living organisms living in an ecosystem some of the examples include plants, humans, bacteria and animals.

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As for the abiotic components are the non-living organisms. The abiotic factors include the light intensity, the temperature, humidity, soil conditions, and the non-living factors. Ahmedabad falls in the deciduous forest biome, since the leaves of the species shed during cold months. There are several different plant species in the deciduous forest with specific characteristics like deciduous trees are tall.

The biotic and abiotic factors in this ecosystem differ in shaded and unshaded areas due to the effect from the abiotic factors. Quadrats are small squares which are used to know the distribution of organisms that can be counted directly. Step 2: Placing the quadrats. Repeat process for all individual quadrats in the shaded and unshaded area. Abiotic factors in shaded and unshaded area Step 1: Place the quadrat. Make sure the quadrats are placed at equidistantly to get accurate data.

Step 2: Measuring light intensity. Hold it over the same area again to verify for any errors and measure the second reading.

biotic and abiotic interactions pdf

Take down second reading and make note if there is any change. Step 4: Calculating the temperature. Lux meter Lux 1 To measure the light intensity of the factors. Quadrats 1 Is used to sample the plants.

Table 1. Name of species Quadrat 1 0cm Quadrat 2 Quadrat 3 Quadrat 4 If we can't tunnel through the Earth, how do we know what's at its center? What evidence does Coutu use to support her claim that improvisation requires resilience. A lady introduce her husband's name with saying by which can stop or move train what is that name.

All Rights Reserved. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Hottest Questions. Previously Viewed. Unanswered Questions. Environmental Issues. How do abiotic and biotic things interact in their environment? Wiki User Biotic factors are living things and abiotic factors are non-living things. They interact in that living things depend on non-living things to survive.

One example of them interacting is when the sun abiotic helps make foods for the plants biotic. An abiotic environment is an environment of non-living things. A biotic environment is an environment of living things. Asked in Animal Life, Biomes How biotic and abiotic interact?

Biotic organisms, anything living, needs to interact with abiotic things, such as water, oxygen, soil, nutrients, etc. Asked in Ecosystems For you what is an ecosystem? Asked in Ecosystems How do biotic and biotic factors interact in an ecosystem? Biotic factors are living things.

Abiotic factors are non-living things.

biotic and abiotic interactions pdf

For example, the sun abiotic helps the plant biotic produce food. Asked in History of Science, Ecosystems How do living and non-living things interact in the environment? Living things biotic use each other and non living abiotic to survive.

Asked in Ecosystems The living and nonliving things in an environment? Living things in an environment- biotic factors. Nonliving things in an environment- abiotic factors.

Asked in Ecosystems How do abiotic and biotic factors interact in an ecosystem?